Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M. and Parzefall, M. (2008) Psychologische Verträge. In: Cooper, Cary L. and Barling, Julian, (eds.) The SAGE handbook of organizational behavior. SAGE Publications, London, United Kingdom, pp. 17-34. The interviewee may be asked how he or she would react to certain situations, situations that may not make sense in relation to the official employment contract, but which, on the contrary, are important for the psychological contract. It is rare for the plural form « psychological contracts » to be used in relation to a single organization, even when applied to multiple employees, since the term is an understanding held by a person or group or individuals, as opposed to the existence of physical documents, as in pluralized « employment contracts » of multiple employees. First, let`s figure out what a psychological contract is. There is no definitive list of expectations and obligations that describe the content of the psychological contract.
Instead, many scientists have chosen to focus on certain aspects, such as.B. exploring the duration or stability of the exchange. Examines the history, state, and strategic implications of the psychological contract Note that this diagram is an example of a very fundamental employee-employer relationship in which only work and wages are formally agreed and contracted. In reality, a representation of the psychological contract for most modern employment relationships would imply several other mutual obligations with work and remuneration « on the waterline », i.e. formally contracted and agreed. Where psychological contracts are flexible, up-to-date and honest, there are (should) many positive outcomes. However, this is an area where a company can leverage the employee-manager relationship by equipping and encouraging managers to discuss and meet psychological expectations when it comes to contracting with employees. Managers can help employees explore and, if necessary, modify their expectations to compensate for negative reactions when unrealistic expectations are not met. As mentioned earlier, the concept of « psychological contractual arrangement » offers many opportunities to understand and improve relationships outside of the traditional employer-employee context.
It`s funny that you should ask, because you`re probably already in one. While the most effective psychological contracts work because they are usually transparent and well communicated between employees and employers, whether you are aware of it or not, you will follow a set of unspoken rules based on common sense, personal moral codes, or courtesy. The following two lists give examples of what expectations a university might have of its members, and then examples of what a member might expect in exchange for each university`s expectations. Consider both lists and try to balance each example of the university`s expectations with members` desire for an answer. When you`re done comparing the examples, make sure you were right. This also changes outside of organizations – in society, the economy and in the personal life of the individual; for example, « Life-Stage » or « Generational Change » – (see Erikson`s theory of life stages). Rousseau believed that the psychological contract could better clarify mutual expectations within the culture of a particular organization. The contract does this by identifying « mental models » that show how employees and employers should interact with each other.
Ultimately, a written employment contract that a team member has with their company doesn`t have much impact on their day-to-day work experience. The term « psychological contract » refers to unwritten beliefs and expectations that: When it comes to how an employee acts, works, and behaves, what has much more influence is the perceived fairness of the psychological contract they have with their employer. Fulfilling psychological contracts can have a real impact on how employees see their business and can influence their daily behavior. Any violation decreases the trust an employee has in their company. If a company doesn`t fix this, employees are likely to exhibit destructive behavior. This can further damage the relationship between employees and employers. The psychological contract is based on the employees` sense of fairness and trust and their belief that the employer sticks to the « agreement » between them. A violation (or breach) of the psychological contract by the employer can have sudden and serious consequences for individuals and organizations. This can negatively impact job satisfaction, engagement and performance, and increase revenue intentions.
Manage expectations: Employers need to make it clear to new employees what they can expect from the job. Managing expectations, especially when bad news is expected, increases the chances of entering into a realistic psychological contract. Our report Where has all the trust gone? revisits the topic of trust and examines why it is important and what can be done to address it. The second important point of Stewart-Joines` quote is the reference to the explanation of the hidden agenda. In other words, both sides need to be transparent about what they want and how they think. The psychological contract is markedly different from a contract or physical document – it represents the term « relationship » or « trust » or « understanding » that may exist for one or more employees, rather than a tangible sheet of paper or legal document that may vary from one employee to another. Self-image is a very important element in people`s evaluation of the psychological contract. An employee whose self-image is that of a distant employee (detached and away from the ownership and direction of the organization) – a simple « employed hand » – will inevitably focus his thinking on traditional job expectations: salary, hours, advancement, quality of work, etc. (this is a long list referenced elsewhere on this page, and see Herzberg`s theory, for example). The state of the HR department is in a state of upheaval. The days of the transaction are over and the development of the strategic HR department is underway. So what will the future look like? Where will the goal be to succeed? Find out in our latest report: The State of HR.
The challenge then is to ensure that these mutually agreed commitments are respected. This requires care and attention – but it is worth knowing that the employer`s violations of the psychological contract are most likely related to education and training, opportunities for advancement, or unfair rewards and remuneration (Arnold, 1996). How to deal with psychological violations and dissent It is interesting to note that several factors of the psychological contract – for example, employee satisfaction, tolerance, flexibility and well-being – are both causes and effects. Employees` feelings and attitudes are both expectations (or results or rewards) and also potential investments (or inputs or sacrifices). The contract is influenced by the daily actions and statements in the workplace and how they are perceived by all parties involved. This should be flexible and updated regularly. It could be sent in a monthly « psychological contract » email outlining the company`s goals and expectations for that revenue. Alternatively, the company could set up its own internal social media system where comments and comments about reciprocity and support can be shared between employees and employers. Psychological contracts evolve over time, evolve and adapt to the organization`s work culture. That being said, they are relatively resistant to change and can vary between individual party members and between entire companies. There are fascinating links between the psychological contract and other behavioral patterns, many of which are presented on this site, for example: incongruities in expectations can lead employees to follow different psychological contracts. It is imperative that companies ensure that the message they send to employees is consistent.
Otherwise, the voice of the company`s management will become unreliable and the psychological contract unclear and perhaps even null. .